Candida Fungus Relief

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Fungi and Antifungal Agents

Fungi and Antifungal Agents

This is a brief overview of antifungal agents, their mechanisms of action, and some fungi that they affect.

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ADDITIONAL TAGS:
anti-fungal, anti fungal
glycoproteins containing mannose
β1,3
β1,6
glucans
chitin
ergosterol
DNA synthesis

Antifungal Agents

Echinocandins (such as caspofungin, anidulafungin, micafungin) inhibit the enzyme that synthesizes β-glucans, called the “penicillin of antifungals”

Polyenes (such as amphotericin B) bind ergosterol, weaken the membrane, cause pore formation, leakage of K+ and Na+, fungal cell death; also confers mammalian toxicity.
Azoles (such as fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole) inhibit the enzyme that synthesizes ergosterol

5-flucytosine (5-FC) is converted to 5-FU to inhibit DNA synthesis as a pyrimidine analog; side effect is myelosuppression
Fungi and Antifungal Agents

Fungi and Antifungal Agents
Yeasts
Candida
Cryptococcus
Molds
Aspergillus
Zygomycetes
Fusarium
Dimorphics
Histoplasma
Blastomyces
Coccidioides
Paracoccidioides
Echinocandins (inhibits β-glucans synthesis)
Works in Candida and Aspergillus
Doesn’t work in dimorphism

Polyenes (inhibits ergosterol activity)
Works in all except Aspergillus terreus

Azoles (inhibits ergosterol synthesis)
Works in all except Candida glabrata
Fluconazole ineffective in Candida krusei and molds

5-flucytosine → 5-FU (inhibits DNA synthesis)
Works in all yeasts, but there is resistance
Doesn’t work in molds or dimorphics